As Bahamian officials continue to sort through the widespread destruction left by Hurricane Dorian, confusion and uncertainty has been rampant during much of the initial recovery process. Guests Katie Pechon, German Parodi and Shaylin Sluzalis bring awareness and urgency to the untold stories of the Bahamas and the oft-overlooked impact disasters have on persons with disabilities. WHAT ARE THE BAHAMAS? The Bahamas extends 760 miles from the coast of Florida on the north-west almost to Haiti on the south-east. The nation consists of 700 islands, of which 30 are inhabited. The total population is 400,000 with 230,000 residing on the island of Nassau. HURRICANE DORIAN’S IMPACT ON THE BAHAMAS. On September 1, 2019, the eye of Hurricane Dorian made landfall on the Abaco Islands with maximum sustained winds of 185 mph, making it the strongest hurricane on record to affect the northwestern Bahamas. The hurricane moved very slowly - just over a one mile-per-hour. As it was stagnant, the debris-laced winds and waves pulverized the islands in the 2 days it took Dorian to move toward the US coast. EVACUATION. German explained that the Bahamas, being a national of islands, didn’t have the infrastructure to evacuate residents. Lackluster, choppy emergency management responses from local and international governments coupled with profiteering by transportation companies (selling evacuation flights for $4500.00 per person) placed resident rescues as a low priority. Additionally, persons with disabilities, if rescued, might be separated from wheelchairs or other vital supports and not re-united with those items. GETTING RESCUE ITEMS TO THE BAHAMAS. Katie and German noted that the typical rescue assets of water, food, clothing and shelter were quickly brought to warehouses in southern Florida. Such staples are rapidly staged after a disaster. However, barriers to bringing the items into the Bahamas included clearing Customs and also having to break down items packed onto pallets to be transported on small planes. Decimated communication systems and damaged roads continued to keep many people isolated from population hubs – the places that will be the first to receive supplies. The number of missing persons has been reported in the thousands and it is likely most that are missing will be deemed losses. The risk of disease grows exponentially with each passing day under the sweltering, wrecked landscape. ITEMS NEEDED FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES. Of course, water, food, clothing and shelter are needs shared by persons impacted by disaster. And, items for persons with disabilities, such as wheelchairs, walkers, catheters, insulin, trach components, etc., weren’t efficiently gathered and staged. These items also require collaboration with rescue coordinators in the Bahamas to ensure that they are matched with persons in need. German shared how he interfaced with civilian rescue forces in the Bahamas that work to support persons with disabilities. TRAUMA. German brought attention to the traumatic stress experienced by persons that endured Hurricane Dorian. Fear and anxiety manifested when it was known that the hurricane was projected to slam into the islands and such feelings will quickly rekindle with the next proximal tropical depression. The psychological shock is under-stated by the mainstream media. WHAT IS REAADI and DRMA? As we expanded the discussion to consider steps to improve domestic safety, German and Shaylin described the Real Emergency Access for Aging and Disability Inclusion for Disasters Act (REAADI) and the Disaster Relief Medicaid Act (DRMA) that were introduced in the House and Senate on June 10, 2019. These bills include measures to improve outcomes for persons with disabilities during disasters. First, REAADI ensures that persons with disabilities contribute government rescue plans designed to bring persons with disabilities to safe location and support their needs during a sentinel event such as a hurricane in the United States. People will have input into the development of the plans that will be followed to ensure that they are supported during a disaster. DRMA fixes the existing problem of Medicaid funding terminating as a person crosses the state line. For example, if a person with a disability receiving Medicaid services evacuates Florida for Alabama during a hurricane, that person is not able to access Medicaid supports available to a resident of Alabama. Yep, that’s messed up and this remedy is overdue. CONTACT INFORMATION FOR THIS EPISODE'S GUESTS. Katie Pechon: VP Triton Relief Group Kpechon@tritonrelief.org; Germán Luis Parodi: UNDRR Persons with Disabilities Co-Focal Point for the Americas and the Caribbean dart@disasterstrategies.org; Shaylin Sluzalis: Disaster Disability Access Response Team (DART) | Partnership for Inclusive Disaster Strategies Shaylin@disastrategies.org; Portlight Inclusive Disaster Strategies portlight.org. FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. LOOKING FOR DR. TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com. This is episode 107.

Purchase Dr. Perrodin’s Book: Schools of Errors – Rethinking School Safety in America

Homeland Security twirled off the rails with its patchwork 2018 Guide to Preventing School Gun Violence. Anyone else think suggesting smoke cannons as counter-measures to an active shooter is better scripted for Hollywood than for classrooms? SINGLE FOCUS SAFETY INITIATIVES. In my book, School of Errors, I use the analogy of fielders in a baseball game to make an argument against single focus safety initiatives. One could train baseball players to field line drives. In fact, the coach could swat sizzling liners for hours. Players would improve at fielding liners hit directly to them. Per our friends at Baseball Info Solutions, we know the following statistics to represent a typical game of baseball. 45% of batted balls were grounders, 36% were fly balls and 19% are line drives. Practice all you want on liners, but if you can’t snag a grounders then you are going to be foiled by half of the balls put into play. In other words, we need our professional guidance documents to prepare us to field any ball. FOUR PHASES OF SECURITY. The DHS guide identifies four phases of security: Connect, Plan, Train and Report. OK, connect with law enforcement and community agencies. That makes sense, until you realize that the steady churn of staff will shuffle the point of contact every few months. People are great at starting inter-agency collaborative teams. People stumble at attempting to sustain such efforts. The guide doesn’t address this or the need to have redundancy in training and a solid induction process for on-boarded players. The 29-page missive wasn’t enriched by this section, or other sections that attempted to push in place a foundation for the document. Readers don’t need a literature review. Know your audience. WHAT IS AN OFC? Beats me – and I’ve been in this field for over 20 years! Mystery solved! It is an Option For Consideration. You have to hunt through the document to find that in the narrative as it’s not bolded or highlighted. Oh, I later found it in Appendix E: Acronyms. So, we have a “new” term. DHS whiffed at the most important point. Do not take on too many OFCs! Again and again, school administrators tell me they can focus on 3-4 objectives and yet routinely list a dozen or more safety objectives as they don’t want to leave anything off the list. I get it, but you can’t be a mile wide and an inch deep. THE WILD IDEAS OF APPENDIX A: EVOLVING PRODUCTS. This section was a sloppy mix of primitive technology (CCV), stating the obvious (Door Locks), and ludicrous ideas including thwarting school intruders with smoke cannons, turnstiles and drones. What’s next? Perhaps dumping a jar of 5,000 marbles into the hallway would impede the shooter? After all, a similar approach proved effective in the movie Animal House. REMS-TA IS THE BETTER OPTION. The biggest problem with Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools Technical Assistance Center (REMS-TA) is that many school leaders aren’t aware of it. Yep, even my knowledge of REMS-TA was scant until member checks in the field continually calibrated me to what is the most complete, accessible, friendly center dedicated to increase school safety. These folks are dialed in. You won’t weed through redundant or fluffy documents to find something you can plug into your school safety plan. REMS-TA has templates, samples, and will connect you with a local person to inform your school’s emergency management. And, webinars that are relevant and they know your name! It’s not attending some one-way concert. Learn more about REMS-TA: https://rems.ed.gov/K12GuideForDevelHQSchool.aspx If you want to be entertained by the hot mess that is the K-12 School Security Guide 2nd Ed. (2018), visit https://www.dhs.gov/publication/k-12-school-security-guide FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. LOOKING FOR DR. TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com. This is episode 106.

Purchase Dr. Perrodin’s Book: Schools of Errors – Rethinking School Safety in America

Enjoy the amazing story of the making of the most honest book written about the school safety industrial complex! Hector Solis, producer of the riveting investigative truth Awareness Podcast,  interviewed author David Perrodin and gifted him a brilliantly-rendered episode titled: The Making of School of Errors. ABOUT SCHOOL OF ERRORS. School of Errors: Rethinking School Safety in America released on August 7, 2019. The book establishes another voice in the discussion of how to promote safe schools. It challenges the unchecked expansion of school fortification and questions the realized benefit of inter-agency collaboration during a sentinel event. School of Errors offers an alternative to traumatizing simulations by providing clear options for improving school safety by the empirically-proven effective measures of leakage detection and sensemaking. Dr. Perrodin restores the scientific method to school safety and clears a path through the media rhetoric fogging this vital topic. THE ARTICLE THAT BECAME A MANUSCRIPT. In 2015, an education journal published David's school safety article. Fortunately, the journal’s editor was friends with an editor at book publisher Rowman & Littlefield. Connections were made and, confident in his expertise and experience, David aimed to write a book that would peel away the rhetoric and deliver an empirically-based, and at times punchy, account of the forces shaping school safety in America. He submitted a book outline and was subsequently offered a book contract. SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY AND DE-CONSTRUCTING COMMUNICATION. Hector recognized how Dr. Perrodin’s university degrees and work in communicative disorders and speech-language pathology centered the de-construction of the communication process - breaking words into phonemes, or sounds, and carefully monitoring expressed communicative messages to ensure they aligned to how the recipient actually comprehended the message. This keen observation shed light upon David’s prioritization of communication systems, including 2-way radio systems and concise communications protocols, as being fundamental to safety. Clear messages. Conveying information. Checking for understanding. In the first pages of School of Errors, David writes about a time when he urged a colleague to assess his district’s communication systems before making a decision to spend money on surveillance cameras. MEMBER CHECKS RAISED THIS BOOK ABOVE OTHERS. First, this book is packed with short stories. You will NOT be bored by a textbook disguised with a fancy cover. The narratives ease you from page to page and the themes couple like railcars being systemically assembled on the tracks. David willingly submitted his manuscript to authentic experts and sought their candid feedback of this work. Dr. Paul Rapp, Dr. Seann Dikkers, Hector Solis, and others, calibrated the manuscript as it clawed forward through edits and proofs. The robust reference section and index are tributes to the depth of research and input from members of the safety community. Additionally, personal interviews with Katie Pechon and Kevin Sullivan bring forward vibrant stories from which the reader will better understand chaos and order as it manifests in the real world -- in ways that are NOT found in binders or flowcharts. WHAT WAS THE MOST SURPRISING THING THAT HAPPENED WHILE WRITING THE BOOK? David and his family were grocery shopping at 8PM on a Friday night. His phone rang and he answered. “I found it!” exclaimed a voice loud enough to be heard in the bread aisle. On the phone was Yvette from the New York City Planning Department. She helped fulfill David’s requests for NYC documents specific to the study of the 9/11/2001 attack on the city. FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. LOOKING FOR DR. TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com This is episode 105. Thank you to Hector Solis for conducting the interview and producing this show!

Purchase Dr. Perrodin’s Book: Schools of Errors – Rethinking School Safety in America

Dr. Perrodin founded two major school conferences and thoroughly understands the teacher professional development industry. David is keenly aware that school safety conferences geared toward school administrators, school boards and teachers has devolved from showcasing best practices to a cash-grab exposition of the latest, greatest, flashiest safety gizmos and doodads. GONE ARE THE RESEARCHERS. Ten years ago, safety conference keynotes were reserved for motivational speakers and researchers. The strategy was to share an empowering story and then turn the stage over to people that were fluent in educational research. This wasn’t always perfect, but it often ensured empiricism over rhetoric. School safety conferences are sprouting up across the country and the presenters are now primarily on the response side of safety - and not specifically school safety. Conference seek folks from the FBI, Secret Service and the military. These folks are not school safety researchers, but their credentials are mesmerizing and they share interesting stories that seldom have anything to do with school safety. HOW CONFERENCES GENERATE REVENUE. A market savvy conference coordinator will exploit numerous revenue streams. Here are four common sources of revenue: (1) Attendees registration fees; (2) Vendors; (3) Sponsors; (4) University credits or Continuing Education Units (CEUs). University credits have waned in recent years, but were very popular around 2011 and before when teachers could ascend the pay schedule by taking university credits. EXPENSES OF OPERATING A CONFERENCE.  Running a conference of fewer than 300 people is often more expensive, per person, than running a larger event. Bulk is better. Here are seven primary expenses of operating a conference: (1) Exhibition space; (2) Meals; (3) A/V equipment; (4) Presenter fees and expenses; (5) Marketing; (6) Staff to organize the event and process registrations; (7) Agency overhead. TEN THINGS YOU CAN NEGOTIATE AS A CONFERENCE PLANNER. A charismatic, keen conference planner will find ways to maximize profits. Here are some strategies: (1) Finding keynote presenters that are already paid by their employer. This often applies to people working for the government. You can pay them a smaller presenter fee as they are double-dipping. Ironically, many of these folks have this feature built into their employment contracts. might double dip; (2) Promote the presenters books or products as marketing is valuable; (3) Buy their books in bulk and include them for drawings or to the first 100 registrants. Event coordinators will typically receive a discount of 25% off retail price when you purchase 10 or more books; (4) If 200 or more people to stay at the conference center’s lodging accommodations, a discount if often applied to the use of the exhibition hall - or even waived; (5) Comp the table space of nonprofit or start-up vendors if they will bring value to the event; (6) Require vendors to “donate” for keynote sessions prize drawings; (7) New or local presenters might agree to waive their fee for exposure as they seek to “break into” bigger circuit of presenting; (8) Selling breakout sessions to vendors; (9) During the off-season, the local chamber of commerce might offer incentives, such as dining or shopping coupons to attendees, to encourage hundreds of people to visit the community; (10) Turn attendees loose for lunch - works well if conference center is near restaurants. BOTTOM LINE is that SAFETY CONFERENCES ARE CASH GOLD MINES! There is no research to back that attending a school safety conference results in safer schools. Vendors are paying thousands of dollars to buy access to educators. A 2-day conference attended by 400 people can generate a net income of $100,000 or more. FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. Email David: thesafetydoc@gmail.com LOOKING FOR DR. TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com This is episode 104.

Purchase Dr. Perrodin’s Book: Schools of Errors – Rethinking School Safety in America

School safety is the default responsibility of individual schools. Surprisingly, there are no federal laws mandating school safety plans of school-based mental health services. Some, and not all, states require school safety plans. Individual school districts safety plans are inconsistent and with site-based management, most schools apply discretion to make safety policies fit the unique characteristics of the school – from the population served to the design of the building. In other words, schools are pretty much on their own to craft and ensure school safety protocols. KEY TERMS FOR ENTITIES RESPONSIBLE FOR SCHOOL SAFETY. “Local entity” includes local, regional or district boards, agencies or offices (such as local boards of education, district boards of trustees or school system committees). “School” includes administrators, principals and other designated officials at the school-level. “School safety entity” includes agencies, departments, task forces, committees, etc., which were created with the intent of addressing school safety matters (Education Commission of The States, 2019). Confusing, right? FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ROLE IN SCHOOL SAFETY. The federal government doesn’t mandate school safety plans. Beyond some token legislation of gun free zones, the federal government defaults the responsibility for maintaining safe schools to the states. The Feds saturate states and schools with recommendations to the point where the one-size-fits-all templates simply overwhelm the end-users. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has produced solid research and resources for school connectedness, a framework known to decrease school violence and increase student attendance and academic performance. A school is not obligated to follow the CDC’s school connectedness model. STATES ROLE IN SCHOOL SAFETY. Only 43 of 50 states mandate that schools have safety plans. Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, North Dakota, Pennsylvania do not (1) require a school safety plan; (2) identify an entity responsible for creating the safety plan; (3) require that law enforcement be involved in creating the plan; (4) frequency with which the plan is required to be reviewed and updated; or (5) have a legal citation referencing school safety. Most states require drills, but then require a submitted checklist once a year to verify compliance. There are no onsite district safety assessments. DISTRICTS ROLE IN SCHOOL SAFETY. Districts are responsible for adopting school safety policies and practices. Wisconsin, for example, has 421 districts! Templates are available, but school safety plans, drills and exercises have a modicum of inter-school reliability due to the fact that most schools function under site-based management. In other words, principals are responsible for safety training procedures and safety drill design and fidelity in their buildings. Using Wisconsin as an example, that’s more than 2,200 school buildings – not including hundreds of community preschool partner sites. SAFETY GRANTS. In July, 2019, the US Department of Education made $65 million dollars available in competitive school safety grants. These grants are divided into 3 categories. Each grant is vaguely described and won’t evoke sustained change. Obtaining one of these grants is like winning the lottery – you can do more until the money is expended. None of these grants is for researching root causes of school violence or the Youth Code of Silence. FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. Email David: thesafetydoc@gmail.com LOOKING FOR DR. TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com This is episode 103.

Purchase Dr. Perrodin’s Book: Schools of Errors – Rethinking School Safety in America

On July 3, 2019, Dr. Perrodin presented School Safety in America: Rhetoric Vs. Reality on Wisconsin Public Television. During that presentation, he identified weaponized deepfakes as the biggest threat to student safety and that the incentive to use deepfakes to target students might be as simple as “The Liar’s Dividend.” WHAT IS THE LIAR’S DIVIDEND? A classic example of the liar’s dividend, which goes back to early reports that cigarettes were linked to cancer. In response, the tobacco industry relied on journalism’s honorable tendency to report “both sides of the story,” and went on to suggest there were legitimate doubts about the validity of that scientific research. WHAT IS THE DIVIDEND? In the May 17, 2019 article “The Liar’s Dividend is dangerous by journalists. Here’s How to Fight it” by Kelly McBride, she states: “This is a bigger problem than the Oxygen Theory, which argues that by debunking a falsehood, journalists give the claim a longer life. The Liar’s Dividend suggests that in addition to fueling the flames of falsehoods, the debunking efforts actually legitimize the debate over the veracity. This creates smoke and fans suspicions among at least some in the audience that there might well be something true about the claim. That’s the “dividend” paid to the perpetrator of the lie. WHY IS THE LIAR’S DIVIDEND THE TOP THREAT TO SCHOOLS? The Liar’s Dividend has always been around in the form of false accusations to dent the recipient’s reputation or incorporated into social media bullying. When a student, for example, posts intentional misinformation about another student, he or she is also planting doubts. “I don’t think Carol would say those things about her friends when she was at Terry’s party, but maybe she did?” ANYONE CAN BE TARGETED. We have a new player in the game. Avatar realism has been around since 2011 and progressively becomes more lifelike. One of these popular avatars is Miquela Sousa. She doesn’t exist. She’s a CGI image with a team of engineers, marketers and dreamers posting to her various social media feeds. Avatars of this nature have proven to be largely the tool of marketers. However, they also have been hacked. The damage won’t be delivered from avatars, but from the newest threat known as deepfakes. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AN AVATAR AND A DEEPFAKE? A deepfake will target a person by falsely representing them while an avatar is a computer generated fake person. So, a deepfake image is you – looks like you, talks like you, but probably doesn’t convey an authentic message. Both present risks to student safety, but the deepfakes can tactically be used to target other students, teachers, school administrators or parents. ERODE TRUST. Students should learn to skeptical consumers of information, but deepfakes are going to pit student against student or student against teacher or everyone in education against the integrity of information. Did the teacher really say that, or was the video of his rant a deepfake generated with $250 software – and now the teacher in on leave as the school conducts an investigation. The Liar’s Dividend paid to the accuser. As schools spend more than $3 billion per year in school fortifications, the reality is that nothing is being done to prepare for deepfakes and once they arrive, we won’t be able to fortify ourselves to safety. What the solution? Nobody knows. However, the intelligence community predicts that deepfakes will infiltrate all levels of society by 2022 and most people won’t be able to identify a deepfake from an authentic recording. FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. Email David: thesafetydoc@gmail.com LOOKING FOR DR. TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com This is episode 102.

Purchase Dr. Perrodin’s Book: Schools of Errors – Rethinking School Safety in America

You can’t put a price tag on keeping schools safe – or can you? The $3 billion school safety industry is on a nonstop trajectory for both number of bills proposed and bills enacted to legislate, and sometimes fund, a staggering array of new mandates and unchecked block grants for school safety. CUSTOMER PERCEIVED VALUE. Customer perceived value (CPV) is the notion that the success of a product or service your business offers hinges on whether customers believe it can satisfy their wants and needs. Most of us can relate to this when purchasing a car. The salesperson will gauge what is important to us and tailor the pitch. If we are looking for a family vehicle, then safety and space are selling points. If it’s a commuter, then it’s fuel economy and ease to maneuver in traffic. WHEN THE PARENT IS THE CUSTOMER. Let’s be honest, school boards are entry-level political positions. Superintendents last 2-3 years in the role, and a teacher with 5 years in the same school is a seasoned veteran. The stats support all of that, but there’s something else going on. School boards and school leadership were entrusted to become informed and then to make the critical decisions about school operations. Today, the CPV model has changed. The parent is the customer and the school leaders and boards are dancing to their tune. When the perceived value is increased student safety, it’s practically unthinkable to assign a price tag to “peace of mind.” This isn’t a callous statement. But, with all the grant money being hurled at schools with minimal guidance and even less accountability, the vendors swoop with amazing presentations to sell schools unproven window dressings. And, it works as we are now convinced that (1) any device might contribute to making a school safer and (2) it’s savage to put a price limit on school safety. IMPLICATIONS FOR SCHOOLS. First, the current model of school safety spending isn’t sustainable. Just as we accept that there isn’t a price cap on school safety, couldn’t the argument be made to spend ten times what we are spending now for more bollards, armored busses, fences, guards – and, you know, the things they use at prisons? Second, school safety conferences have become overrun by fortification vendors. The list of speakers is FBI, CIA, FBI, and whatever. The scholars of the field don’t get to the stage as they know we can’t fortify our way to safety – and that message isn’t congruent with the $50,000 the conference is raking in from device-selling vendors and sponsors. The latest trend is to hand the breakout sessions over to the vendors. Instead of a breakout on learning about conducting focus groups with students, it’s now a presentation about window films to slow an intruder. What? And, once these practices are vetted, the weeds are difficult to remove and the lawn is just green and that’s fine, I suppose. ARE GOVERNMENT SAFETY GRANTS AN ATTEMPT TO MAINTAIN THE SOCIAL CONTRACT? The message from the heap of safety bills and plush grant funding is that to “solve” the problem of school safety, administrators, boards, teachers, parents and students must look external to the government. It’s called the transference dynamic and it was used as a political means to justify all kinds of spending to fortify the US from Russia in the early 1980s (read School of Errors – Rethinking School Safety in America).  To makes schools safer, we need to get the kids involved – and crack the Youth Code of Silence in which 81% of the time someone else, usually a peer, was aware ahead of time of a pending school attack. FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. Email David: thesafetydoc@gmail.com LOOKING FOR DR. TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com This is episode 101.

 

Purchase Dr. Perrodin’s Book: Schools of Errors – Rethinking School Safety in America

In 2011, I co-founded what would become one of the largest school-based positive behavior summits in the Midwest. As my partners and I crafted legal contracts with the conference center, vendors and presenters, we were introduced to the term “Force Majeure” which is very significant in Wisconsin in February. Ever since, I’ve considered force majeure as it relates to school safety – and that inevitably leads into chaos theory. WHAT IS FORCE MAJEURE? Force Majeure is French for “superior force”. Force majeure refers to a clause that is included in contracts to remove liability for natural and unavoidable catastrophes that interrupt the expected course of events and restrict participants from fulfilling obligations. In other words, if solar flare fried our electrical grid, we wouldn’t be on the hook to pay conference presenters their speaking fees as Tuesday’s conference wasn’t going happen as the communication, power and transportation structures largely left people with few options other than to stay in their homes or hoof it to the nearest supply depot. WAS 9/11 FORCE MAJEURE? Yes. New York, for example, hadn’t encountered a terrorist attack via commercial aircraft – ever! And, nobody had experienced all commercial planes grounded across the nation for days. If you couldn’t fly your shipment of XYZ from Boston to LA in 24 hours, as promised, then the force majeure clause would have been activated and you wouldn’t be held at fault for not fulfilling the contract. CAN FEMA DECLARE FORCE MAJEURE? I don’t think so. And, if FEMA has this ability, it hasn’t exercised it. But, it would be helpful for strengthening rescue forces during sentinel events, such as flooding. For example, in 2017, the nonprofit Cajun Navy Relief volunteered boats, trucks, food, manpower and other resources to rescue people from flooded areas. FEMA was largely a passive partner in this process – not overtly assisting Cajun Navy Relief in most instances, but also not a barrier to their interface into the government rescue system. This changed with Hurricane Florence in 2018 as FEMA was significantly less cooperative with nonprofits such as Triton Relief Group. If FEMA declared a state of force majeure, however, that act might clear the way for nonprofit rescue forces to play bigger roles, and in expedited fashion, with large scale rescues. WHAT DOES FORCE MAJEURE MEAN FOR SCHOOL SAFETY? This is a slippery interface. First, a declaration of force majeure might convey to some that the situation if insurmountable and they will simply surrender. On the other hand, force majeure can acknowledge that the state of similarity has officially transitioned into chaos – and actually embracing chaos can help people narrow down and make decisions that might save lives. FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. Email David: thesafetydoc@gmail.com This is Episode #100.  LOOKING FOR DR. TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com

As of May, 2019, only 43 of 50 states require schools to have safety plans and conduct safety drills (Education Commission of the States, 2019). When states mandate schools to have safety plans and conduct safety drills, it is the individual schools left to determine how they will design said plans and drills. In some states, the safety plan must be presented to a school board and submitted to the state Department of Justice. However, without templates and rubrics, there is littler inter-school reliability. What is a “good” safety plan or “effective” safety drill? Nobody knows. STANFORD PRISON EXPERIMENT WAS THE TIPPING POINT FOR PROTECTING HUMAN SUBJECTS. While the Stanford Prison Experiment was originally slated to last 14 days, it had to be stopped after just six due to what was happening to the student participants. The guards became abusive, and the prisoners began to show signs of extreme stress and anxiety. These were university students, assuming assigned roles, as part of an experiment that attempted to investigate the psychological effects of perceived power, focusing on the struggle between prisoners and prison officers. THE MELTDOWN. Similar to the infamous 1963 Milgram shock experiment, Stanford’s experiment flew off the rails as subjects in positions of power followed directives that seemingly brought pain or harm to recipients.  Were the subjects acting as prison guards cruel, despicable people? Probably not. But, they were in a university context and a professor was mingling among them. They probably assumed that some measures were in place to prevent harm to recipients - and simultaneously lacked awareness of the endorphin rush they received from exerting their will over others. IRB WAS FORMED. In 1974, universities collectively ratified the Institutional Review Board (IRB) process. The mandate of the IRB is to provide ethical and regulatory oversight of research that involves human subjects by: Protecting the rights, welfare and well-being of human research participants, recruited to participate in research conducted or supported by the university. Psychological and physical welfare are carefully considered and risks are identified and mitigated. WHAT IS COMMON RULE? In 1991, 16 federal agencies formally adopted the core of these regulations in a common Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects also known as the "Common Rule" (Grady, 2015). I propose that adopting the IRB in K-12 settings will increase safety for all drill participants and, through the scientific model, increase efficacy of school safety drills. Common Rule applies, for example, to the Food and Drug Administration and clinical trials for medications. Common Rule was updated in 2019 with greater emphasis placed upon simplifying subject consent forms and clearly explaining potential consequences of participating in studies. IRB or COMMON RULE WOULD ELEVATE SCHOOL SAFETY DRILLS. Schools can establish their own standards for school safety plans and safety drills as long as they are complying with state mandates. In other words, schools IRB or COMMON RULE for these reasons: (1) Corral theatrical intruder drills that might traumatize or physically harm participants. This happens - just do a search on Google for “Intruder Drill Lawsuit”. Also, hyper-realistic drills are not the gold standard. If they were, we would conduct fire drills and tornado drills with similar drama. So, a committee of administrators, teachers, students, parents and board members review each proposed safety drill. (2) Each drill would have at least one learning objective. For example, “If a lockdown is announced during passing time, students would go to a safe location.” You can define “safe” per your site. Another example of a learning objective is, “Emergency responders will learn 3 techniques to engage with students with disabilities.” FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. Email David: thesafetydoc@gmail.com LOOKING FOR DR. TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com

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Purchase Dr. Perrodin’s Book: Schools of Errors – Rethinking School Safety in America

In 1978, an engineering student discovered a fatal structural flaw in New York City’s just-completed Citicorp Tower. What happened next wasn’t made public for nearly 20 years! NOTRE DAME CATHEDRAL FIRE LEAD CONTAMINATION. Dr. Perrodin juxtaposes the Citicorp Tower dilemma with the modern day unfolding crisis of massive lead contamination resultant of the April, 2019, Notre Dame Cathedral Fire. Per the Guardian (in an article by Angelique Chrisafis dated May 9th), “The Paris police statement on Thursday said that on the surface of pavements and gardens immediately adjoining the cathedral, lead levels were found to be very high: between 32 and 65 times the recommended limit by French health authorities. The areas closest to the cathedral are currently closed. Lead levels are also high within the cathedral itself.” Wow! Dr. Perrodin notes that similar “defiant” articles are surfacing that both bring awareness to the lead contamination and bluntly state the dire short and long term health risks associated with approximately 500,000 pounds of lead vaporized from the cathedral’s roof. Chrisafis’s article later notes, “But the French environmental campaign group Robin des Bois has warned that about 300 tonnes of lead from the cathedral’s roof and steeple had melted in the blaze. The cathedral has been reduced to the state of toxic waste,” the association said shortly after the fire, urging authorities to detoxify the tonnes of rubble, ash and wastewater produced in the disaster. WHAT’S REALLY HAPPENING IN PARIS? David states that Paris officials are aware of the breadth and depth of the lead contamination issue and that there’s likely a contingency plan being assembled to deal with thousands of people impacted by lead in their bodies secondary to the Notre Dame fallout. Dr. Perrodin wasn’t surprised that areas close to the cathedral weren’t registering high levels of lead contamination as he points out that the thick plume of lead-laden smoke probably carried the highest concentrations of lead 2-3 miles from the cathedral before cooling and the particles dusted over Paris. PARIS HAS A LOT TO LOSE. Yep, admission of widespread lead contamination would destroy tourism (the economic engine of Paris) and how do you tackle lead abatement in a population dense region? Chernobyl could be isolated - you can’t do the same with Paris. Also, imagine the litigation! What happens to the $billion in donations to rebuild NDC when thousands of people rack up medical bills due to complications from lead exposure? The public health crisis would be off the charts! THE CITICORP TOWER FLAW COULD HAVE KILLED 20,000 PEOPLE. Chief structural engineer, William LeMessurier, is largely credited as the person responsible for creating the wondrous Citicorp Tower in 1977. He was a thoughtful engineer and put the design of the tower through its paces with wind test scale simulations in the world’s best lab and worked the standard battery of industry calculations. The tower was built in an innovative way to accommodate an existing church. Hence, the pillars that supported the tower were moved from the corners to the middle of each wall. A strong central pillar, like a mushroom stem, also supported the structure. WHAT WAS WRONG. LeMessurier received a call from an engineering graduate student who was puzzled at how the structure could withstand perpendicular winds. LeMessurier listened and upon further study of the building and learning of some last-minute changes that included having tension braces bolted in place rather than welded in place, he was terrified to be informed that the tower would collapse with encountering a 70 MPH wind from a certain angle. The tower had a tuned dampening system that would offset such winds, but it was electrical - and if the power went out during a storm - well, lights out! WHAT CITICORP DID RIGHT. LeMessurier the Citicorp brass, insurance folks, NYC officials and the NYC welder’s union acted in unison to quickly fortify the tower. They also hired 3 weather agencies to rigorously track weather conditions and formulated a 10-block evacuation plan in case of high winds. WHAT CITICORP DID WRONG. The workers in the tower or in proximal structures were NOT made aware that the tower could collapse. The decision to withhold this information was done to prevent panic and massive economic disruption to the city. In addition, officials believed they could evacuate the zone in time. However, Lemessurier is most strongly criticized for not sharing the wind shear information with the greater engineering community for several years. How many buildings were constructed AFTER Citicorp Tower without calculating for the peculiar wind shear factors confirmed by Lemessurier? In a recorded 1997 presentation he gave at a university, Lemessurier implies that other tall buildings existed that were susceptible to failure due to similar wind dynamics. How many of those structures might have been built differently, or retrofitted, had Lemessurier’s knowledge immediately been shared with building engineers? IMPLICATIONS FOR SCHOOL SAFETY. Dr. Perrodin presents different scenarios that happen in schools. Each impacts the safety of the setting. How do the schools respond to each scenario if following what is unfolding in Paris or per the protocol established by the team that quietly mitigated the Citicorp flaw? FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. Email David: thesafetydoc@gmail.com LOOKING FOR DR. TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com

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