Why is May designated as Food Allergy Awareness Month? Dr. Perrodin points out the merits of awareness activities centered to food and other allergies - some with potentially life-threatening consequences. However, he identifies the irrationality of devoting the month of May to allergy awareness primarily as it is at the very end of the school year! 55 million students that attend schools in America every day - not to mention students attending post-secondary institutions. FIRE PREVENTION MONTH. Since 1922, Fire Prevention Month (began as Fire Prevention Week) was recognized across America in October. This made sense. As the cooler months settled in, people would resort to fireplaces to heat their homes. In modern times, Fire Prevention Month expanded to include awareness of carbon monoxide poisoning due to using portable heating units in confined spaces. I don’t think anyone would argue to change Fire Prevention Month. So, we can identify the logic with October as Fire Prevention Month. We can’t identify the logic with May as Food Allergy Awareness Month. THE PROBLEM WITH ALLERGY AWARENESS MONTH IN MAY. It’s obvious. It’s recognized at the end of the school year when it will offer little benefit to students and staff. Would we ever consider having the first fire drill of the school year in May? No - and it certainly doesn’t make sense to roll out the allergy awareness activities weeks before students head into summer vacation. HOW MANY PEOPLE HAVE FOOD ALLERGIES? The Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Connection Team (FAACT) is a robust clearinghouse for food allergy data and professional development resources. I have used information from their website to substantially inform this narrative. In the US, an estimated 12 million people have food allergies - and the prevalence of food allergies in school-aged children is rapidly rising. Actually, allergies in general are on the rise - including reactions to latex or clay.  Food allergies cause roughly 30,000 emergency room visits and 150 deaths per year. KEYS TO FOOD ALLERGY MANAGEMENT IN SCHOOLS. In the United States, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 causes people to be reminded of allergy problems every time they handle a food package, and restaurants have added allergen warnings to menus. We can look to 2004 as the “modern era” for awareness of food allergies. Dr. Perrodin shares his personal accounts of collaborating with food service directors and school nurses to learn how schools can best manage food allergy risks. In fact, a contributing factor to food allergies might be as simple as a product vendor changing from one brand of applesauce to another brand of applesauce. So, it’s less and issue of how we handle food allergy awareness - the issue is WHEN we spotlight this critical matter. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR FOOD ALLERGIES. Dr. Perrodin offers authentic examples of educating teachers and students to the symptoms of allergic reactions; the sometimes complex and also the political interface between schools responding to a student presenting with a severe allergic reaction and the requests of the student’s parent. WHAT ARE EPI-PENS? When someone presents with a severe allergic reaction which often includes swelling of the airway and difficulty breathing, an epinephrine autoinjector (AKA, Epi-Pen) is used for injecting a measured dose or doses of epinephrine by means of autoinjector technology. It is most often used for the treatment of anaphylaxis. This can be done per medical order or without a medical order. However, 911 must be called following administration of the Epi-Pen as it will delay the full manifestations of symptoms. David mentions that schools can often obtain free Epi-Pens by contacting their health insurance carrier or philanthropic groups. He also has suggestions of ways to use expired Epi-Pens for professional development. COMMON FOOD ALLERGY ITEMS - THE BIG 8: Peanuts; Tree nuts (cashews, pecans, walnuts, etc.); Milk; Egg; Wheat; Soy; Fish (halibut, salmon, etc.); Shellfish (crab, lobster, shrimp, etc.). WHAT CAN SCHOOLS DO? David recommends that schools unilaterally designate September or October as Food Allergy Awareness Month and engage in the full spectrum of professional development and awareness activities that would otherwise happen in May. Then, in May, a refresher about allergy awareness can be incorporated into instruction and might serve as a reminder for students to be vigilant as they enter different settings during the summer. FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests and do not reflect positions of The 405 Media or supporters of “The Safety Doc Podcast”. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. Email David: thesafetydoc@gmail.com LOOKING FOR DR. TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com

Food Allergy Resource:

https://www.foodallergyawareness.org/education/food-allergy-awareness-initiatives/food-allergy-awareness-week-month/  

Attorney James Sibley is a potent advocate for special needs students and their families fighting for fair treatment. In this episode of the Safety Doc Podcast, Attorney Sibley and host David Perrodin discuss the sprawling practice of limiting or exempting students with disabilities from school safety instruction, drills and access to threat reporting systems. James and David employ authentic stories that educators and parents will relate to in this vibrant discussion that is not about assigning blame and all about a more informed way for parents, educators and students to think about how to calibrate inclusive school safety. REASONS FOR EXEMPTING CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS FROM SAFETY INSTRUCTION. Attorney Sibley explains that educators think they are somehow "protecting" students with special needs by limiting their participation in safety drills. Many of these students present unique challenges during emergency situations and they shouldn't just be included in regular safety planning, there should be specialized safety plans in place for them. And, for those plans to be successful there needs to be preparation and practice. Dr. Perrodin adds that the hyper-realistic design of contemporary school intruder drills also prompts educators and parents to limit students with special needs from exposure to these types of drills. However, the question also arises of the appropriateness of these drills for all students and staff. Has the threshold of “reasonable” safety drills been crossed? LAWS FOR STUDENT SAFETY INSTRUCTION: IDEA and ADA. Attorney Sibley describes two of the primary laws that impact student safety instruction. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a piece of legislation that ensures the approximately 8 million students with a disability are provided a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) that is tailored to their individual needs. Students with disabilities that receive special education or related services have a plan developed by the school team and parents to meet the needs of the child. That plan can, and should, include specific instruction and supports to ensure the student’s safety is maintained during a crisis situation. The other significant piece of legislation addressed by Attorney Sibley is the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). People commonly think of this in terms of ramped entrances and accessible bathrooms. However, he brought awareness to Chapter 7 Addendum 2: The ADA and Emergency Shelters: Access for All in Emergencies and Disasters identifies that one of the government’s (including schools) primary responsibilities is to protect people during disasters and emergencies and to provide shelter that accommodates all persons, including people with disabilities. INCORRECT APPLICATION OF THE IEP PROCESS RELATIVE TO STUDENT SAFETY. First, you can’t do something in the IEP that would violate the ADA. The IEP has a portion that includes testing accommodations and Attorney Sibley mentioned that as teams discuss this section it is sometimes incorrectly broadened to include participation in safety instruction. Ultimately, students can’t be exempted from school safety instruction or drills for any reason. ASKING QUESTIONS IS THE WAY TO LEARN ABOUT A STUDENT’S SAFETY INSTRUCTION AT SCHOOL. Attorney Sibley believes much can be learned when parents adopt an inquiry-based approach to learning about their child’s school safety instruction and participation in drills. He gave the example of the following questions a parent might pose to school staff: “Are these drills designed to increase and enhance the safety on the campus? And if the answer is yes, is there some reason that you don’t want my child to be safe – as I want them to be safe and I assume you do, too.” WE UNDER-ESTIMATE THE POTENTIAL OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES DURING CRISIS SITUATIONS. Dr. Perrodin gave accounts of educators that exempted children with special needs from drills only because they anticipated that they would not perform well during the drill. In fact, the student had never been afforded the opportunity to demonstrate competency in the drill. Attorney Sibley added a story of when he was a Scout Leader and the Scouts, including some with disabilities, needed to respond to a rapidly rising river. Although the Scouts hadn’t practiced for that specific scenario, they had practiced for unforeseen situations and also recognized a chain of command. They processed the flood without panic and, as Attorney Sibley underscores, students with special needs will surprise us with how well they can handle emergency situations.  FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests and do not reflect positions of The 405 Media or supporters of “The Safety Doc Podcast”. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. Email David: thesafetydoc@gmail.com LOOKING FOR DR. TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com Learn more about ADA Chapter 7 Addendum 2 at https://www.ada.gov/pcatoolkit/chap7shelterprog.pdf

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Purchase Dr. Perrodin’s Book: Schools of Errors – Rethinking School Safety in America

I was attending a convention for school safety “experts” - I suppose. The presentations were a mix of pitches from field experts and product vendors. There wasn’t much new for me to learn and I found myself rather cynical and skeptical watching others present on school safety as everyone has a self-serving agenda. One of the veteran experts, someone I knew and tipped my hat to his work in both law enforcement and then in schools.  He begins his presentation with an amazing example of confirmation bias and headline research.  Headlines appear on the screen - the baited / incomplete headlines of school shootings and school violence.  A few seconds of audio from a newsreporter interrupted by another clip and another.  Headline after headline and faster and faster and more dramatic, rising background music for maybe 100 seconds. The screen goes dark. The presenter stands silent for an uncomfortable number of seconds. “That, ladies and gentlemen, is the urgency of school safety in America”, he said. I countered that this was not the state of school safety in America, but rather a perfect example of “headline research” manifesting in confirmation bias.  Yet, had that convention room been filled with parents, they would have demanded action – or fortification. Now. At any cost. WHAT IS CONFIRMATION BIAS. Per Wikipedia, confirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses. It is a type of cognitive bias and a systematic error of inductive reasoning. People display this bias when they gather or remember information selectively, or when they interpret it in a biased way. The effect is stronger for emotionally charged issues and for deeply entrenched beliefs. People also tend to interpret ambiguous evidence as supporting their existing position. Biased search, interpretation and memory have been invoked to explain attitude polarization (when a disagreement becomes more extreme even though the different parties are exposed to the same evidence), belief perseverance (when beliefs persist after the evidence for them is shown to be false), the irrational primacy effect (a greater reliance on information encountered early in a series) and illusory correlation (when people falsely perceive an association between two events or situations). HOW CONFIRMATION BIAS IMPACTS SCHOOL SAFETY. Remember, people will seek information that supports their beliefs. I can recognize this immediately when I’m not a “fit” for a school district that has hired me as a consultant. When I deviate from their company line, the audience frowns or they get a worried look. Confirmation bias often assumes there’s been some type of research conducted - but I’ve found that’s just not accurate - it’s more like my colleague and his headlines. Confirmation bias will prevent systems from evolving.  New thinking is dismissed. THEY SAW A GAME; A CASE STUDY. “When the Dartmouth football team played Princeton in 1951, much controversy was generated over what actually took place during the game. Basically, there was disagreement between the two schools as to what had happened during the game. A questionnaire designed to get reactions to the game and to learn something of the climate of opinion was administered at each school and the same motion picture of the game was shown to a sample of undergraduate at each school, followed by another questionnnaire. Results indicate that the "game" was actually many different games and that each version of the events that transpired was just as "real" to a particular person as other versions were to other people.” (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) Hastorf, A. H., & Cantril, H. (1954). They saw a game; a case study. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 49(1), 129-134. FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests and do not reflect positions of The 405 Media or supporters of “The Safety Doc Podcast”. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward  productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. Email David: thesafetydoc@gmail.com LOOKING FOR DR. TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com

Schools are exempting students with disabilities from participating in safety instruction and safety drills. These misplaced pardons are enabled via an incorrect application of the Individualized Education Plan (IEP)  process or a district-generated parent “opt-out” form. First, let’s be clear that it is illegal to exempt students from mandated fire drills. However, the practice is sprawling, unchecked and not enforced. Dr. Perrodin predicts deadly consequences from “protecting” children with special needs from receiving proper safety instruction. ANECDOTES. David kickstarts this episode by noting he is donning a beanie and insulated jacket as the basement of his North Star Studio was barely pushing the thermometer to 54 degrees Fahrenheit. Worse yet, the evening temperature would dip to minus ten degrees - a bit brisk for March. He shuffles through a few thoughts on his mind including: Why aren’t windshield’s more durable; How his home town issued a rare decree liberating residents from shoveling their sidewalks for the rest of winter; Why is it that people forget the blatant racism of Dr. Seuss’ cartoons during World War II; and looking ahead to the August 10th release of his book School of Errors - Rethinking School Safety in America. THE PROBLEM WITH EXEMPTING STUDENTS FROM SAFETY DRILLS: There are at least 10 million school-age children with disabilities in America and they aren’t receiving the same quality of safety instruction as their non-disabled peers. Per disability rights attorney James Sibley, “It is amazing how schools think that "sparing" special ed students from participation in fire drills active shooter drills and the like is showing them some sort of kindness. Many disabled students present special challenges during emergency situations and they shouldn't just be included in regular safety planning, there should be specialized safety plans in place for them. And, for those plans to be successful there needs to be preparation and practice.” Students must be provided skills that will generalize to home, stores or trips.  And, these skills must be resilient and reliable as the student exits school and enters the post-secondary setting. WHAT THE RESEARCH TELLS US ABOUT STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES AND SCHOOL SAFETY. Davis, Alicia & Gast, David. (1998). Social safety for young children: A review of the literature on safety skills instruction. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. 18. 222-234. “Young children in today's society may find themselves in situations that require appropriate action in order to avoid dire consequences, such as injury of death. These situations may be the result of contact with objects in the physical environment action in order to avoid dire consequences, such as injury or death. such as guns, knives, or toxins. In other cases, children may be faced with confronting dangers in the social environment, such as avoiding the lures of strangers or responding to the abuse or neglect of a caregiver. Although safety education programs are implemented frequently in school settings, few research studies have systematically evaluated the methodology for teaching safety skills to young children.” Dr. Perrodin praised this study and also noted it was perhaps the best available on school safety instruction although it was done more than 2 decades ago. He pointed out that the study urged future research not be conducted in a group style, but individualized, and that it was critical to conduct “in vivo” data gathering - or to observe the child in various natural settings including school. FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests and do not reflect positions of The 405 Media or supporters of “The Safety Doc Podcast”. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward  productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. Email David: thesafetydoc@gmail.com LOOKING FOR DR. TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com

Originally coined by Masahiro Mori in 1970, the term “uncanny valley” describes our strange revulsion toward things that appear nearly human, but not quite right. This revulsion usually involves robots, but can also include computer animations and some medical conditions. THE UNCANNY VALLEY AND ANIMATED MOVIES. There’s a big difference between two popular animated movies released in 2004. The Incredibles portrays characters with intentionally angular and exaggerated features that leave no doubt to the viewer that they are watching cartoon characters. However, audiences packed with children cringed while watching The Polar Express with its dead-eyed people and an uncomfortable dark-tinge to the demeanor of the conductor - not to mention the unsettling message of the movie to carelessly hand over faith to complete strangers.  The movie slipped into the uncanny valley and wasted a stellar performance by Tom Hanks on a movie that’s perhaps better heard than viewed. TRANSHUMANISM. Dr. Perrodin shares a discussion he had with a friend that explored the matter of transhumanism, or the international philosophical movement that advocates for the transformation of the human condition by developing and making widely available sophisticated technologies to greatly enhance human intellect and physiology. An example might be contact lenses that allow people to record what is happening around them or even bio-engineering to increase intelligence. What are the security implications, for example, of people being able to record everything in their vicinity without awareness or consent of others? LIL MIQUELA. This teen has a million social media followers - an impressive feat, considering that she is a fictional person managed by a team of engineers, marketers and dreamers. Dr. Perrodin argues that Lil Miquela has crossed the uncanny valley - especially for children with perceptual or intellectual disabilities convinced that she is an authentic person. IMPLICATIONS OF AVATAR REALISM. Elections and marketing are immediate areas where avatar realism will substantially impact “the way things have been done” in the world. It’s completely possible to tailor an appealing realistic avatar that is a mouthpiece for political agendas or brands. While this arguably happens with people, the accountability of an avatar won’t be as susceptible to shaming and people will be less interested in applying pressure to the persons programming the avatars. SCHOOL SAFETY AND MANIPULATIVE AVATARS - THE NEW RISK TO CHILD GROOMING. Dr. Perrodin expresses concern that CGI avatars will eventually fall into the hands of child groomers and provide a means by which to develop a more comprehensive profile for online bait profiles. He urges schools and parents to make children aware and skeptical of potential realistic avatars. Dr. Perrodin notes that well over half of people “friended” on social media are never met in person - and this practice has made it easier for skilled avatar engineers to jump the uncanny valley as few people seek to validate or authenticate sources. SCARILY REALISTIC ‘DEEP VIDEO PORTRAITS’ & FAKE NEWS - ANYONE COULD BE FALSELY PRESENTED.  Finally, Dr. Perrodin mentions a new technology that allows the user to edit facial movements of persons to match dubbed voices. While not yet perfected or available at the retail level, such technology could be deployed to make it appear that anyone gave a certain speech or made certain comments. This is a novelty if you want to watch yourself giving a State of the Union address through some basic uploaded video. However, what if this software was used to make it appear that you made inappropriate comments? If a 30-second video clip of this fabricated presentation went viral, it could result in permanent personal and career ruin. Is it even possible to protect yourself against this method of character attack? FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests and do not reflect positions of The 405 Media or supporters of “The Safety Doc Podcast”. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward  productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. Email David: thesafetydoc@gmail.com LOOKING FOR DR.  TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com Lil Miquale article referenced in this episode: https://www.thecut.com/2018/05/lil-miquela-digital-avatar-instagram-influencer.html

An optimal decision is a decision that leads to at least as good a known or expected outcome as all other available decision options. It is an important concept in decision theory. So, by deduction, a suboptimal outcome wouldn’t be “lesser than” an optimal outcome – but Dr. Perrodin questions the long-held belief that suboptimal outcomes are mistakes. SUBOPTIMAL DECISIONS CAN BE BRILLIANT. We need to understand how this conflates with decision making, as when we are talking about suboptimal outcomes, we are also recognizing that suboptimal decisions were made to arrive that suboptimal outcomes. This infers that the decision-making process could be tuned, and perhaps that is true, but perhaps the suboptimal decisions were quite brilliant in the presented context and situation.  Remember, all decisions are laminated to time, context and situation. Any study will frame sub-optimal choice from the deficit perspective. Whether it is the “paradox” of suboptimal choice or solving the problem of suboptimal choice. FLAWED THINKING. Dr. Perrodin argues that the way suboptimal outcomes are portrayed primes people for a single, convergent, universally-acceptable solution. In other words, the false premise that there is only one correct way to do something. MARKETING and CONSUMERISM. Advertising attempts to convince us that an optimal outcome, such as owning a functional economic vehicle, is actually a suboptimal outcome as the driver could be behind the wheel of an expensive luxury vehicle – which would deliver the identical optimal outcome of conveying him from one location to another. This myth of stacking optimal outcomes is vanity. SCHOOL SAFETY and SUBOPTIMAL OUTCOMES. Dr. Perrodin gives examples of when linear thinking and assuming there is a direct path to an optimal outcome can degrade a school safety situation. For example, if an evacuation route is blocked during a fire drill, staff and students will need to evaluate “suboptimal” alternatives that will eventually liberate them from the building. Another example would be an evacuation rally site that needs to be moved further away from the school due to circumstances that convinced responders to expand the perimeter around the incident zone. If you are unable to process suboptimal alternatives, you will be unable to incrementally move yourself toward safety. FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests and do not reflect positions of The 405 Media or supporters of “The Safety Doc Podcast”. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward  productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. Email David: thesafetydoc@gmail.com LOOKING FOR DR.  TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com

Giles Rhys Jones, Chief Marketing Officer for what3words, was interviewed for this episode of The Safety Doc Podcast. Dr. Perrodin contacted Giles after recently learning about what3words and instantly realizing its potential to recast swaths of school safety protocols. Giles and David discuss how w3w has interfaced with, and improved, rescue platforms and the potential ways the system might benefits schools. With 55 million students attending school daily in the  United States, w3w could immediately have a profound impact on improving school safety. Giles shares the fun story of a comparison of two persons assigned to deliver packages to addresses. One was provided traditional mapping options and the other with what3words. The person with w3w not only delivered the packages faster, and without having to seek clarifying directions, but also was happier with the activity! WHAT IS WHAT3WORDS? what3words (yes, all small letters) is a really simple way to talk about location as the company’s geospatial engineering team divided the world into a grid of 3m x 3m squares and assigned each one a unique 3 word address. It means anyone can accurately find any location and share it more quickly, easily and with less ambiguity than any other system. The service can be used via the free mobile app or online map. It can also be built into any other app, platform or website, with just a few lines of code. You might not be aware of the software, but it’s already integrated into several everyday platforms. For instance, car navigation systems are shifting to the precision of what3words. MERCEDES-BENZ USES W3W IN ITS VEHICLES. Mercedes-Benz is the first car company to integrate what3words into its in-car navigation systems. Drivers with compatible models can now say or type in a 3 word address to get directions to a precise 3m x 3m location, anywhere in the world. The adoption of what3words shows the company’s commitment to a premium and intuitive customer experience and sees Mercedes-Benz leading the way in destination input. SOLVING AN INDUSTRY-WIDE PROBLEM. In a recent survey of new car owners, JD Power found that car navigation systems being difficult to use and inaccurate is one of the most frequently reported problems, along with voice recognition issues. The automotive industry has struggled to improve these features, and a significant reason is that the world’s street addressing systems are incompatible with modern navigation needs, and especially voice input.‘Street addresses were just not built for voice input’ says Chris Sheldrick, CEO and co-founder of what3words. ‘15 Ammanford Road and 50 Ammanford Road are hard for a voice system to distinguish between, and many road names aren’t unique. There are 14 different Church Roads in London, and 632 Juarez streets in Mexico City. Street addresses can also be difficult to pronounce correctly. The town of Godmanchester, is actually pronounced ‘Gumster’. Mercedes-Benz is known for innovation, so it’s no surprise to us that it is the first automotive company to integrate our system into their vehicles’. SCHOOL SAFETY AND 3-WORD ADDRESSES. David identified several benefits that what3words would bring to existing school safety practices. The first is the ability to map an entire campus. If a student is hiding in unfamiliar area of a campus due to an intruder, that student could use the w3w app to convey his or her specific location to emergency responders. Dr. Perrodin’s second point is carried forward from his previous podcast in that what3words solves the age-old problem of what to do if an evacuation site or re-unification site is not available due to a myriad of reasons, including a larger perimeter established by law enforcement that encompasses those pre-determined locations. W3W efficiently allows for sharing of the evacuation or re-unification site as part of “working the problem” by authorities. It prevents people from locking in on a sub-optimal outcome of heading to a location that might not even be available as dictated by the dynamic context and situation. FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests and do not reflect positions of The 405 Media or supporters of “The Safety Doc Podcast”. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward  productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. Email David: thesafetydoc@gmail.com LOOKING FOR DR.  TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com Learn more about what3words at https://what3words.com/

Originally from the music industry, what3words CEO Chris Sheldrick identified the need for a better addressing system, after bands and equipment constantly kept getting lost. FIREFIGHTING and PLAT BOOKS. Dr. Perrodin aced his classroom and field firefighting certification competencies - with one exception. He struggled to interpret coordinates on a plat book. First, for those of you not from my generation, a plat map, also known as a "plat," shows how a tract of land is divided into lots. It is drawn to scale and shows the land's size, boundary locations, nearby streets, flood zones, and any easements or rights of way. In the 1990s, fighting a fire in a rural, or unpopulated area, meant that the firefighter needed to pinpoint the location of the fire against the matching “plat” in what was typically a bound book of plat maps. WHAT3WORDS started in 2013 and has blazed across the globe, benefitting not only the logistical variables of delivery, but has extended into other areas, including rescue. The what3words system is fixed and will never change. So a 3 word address today will still be the same in 10 years’ time. The square size of 3m x 3m is consistent across the globe, eliminating the need to switch between addressing formats or coordinate systems based on a country or industry sector. WORDS BEAT NUMBERS. Using words means that non-technical people can discover and understand a 3 word address more easily than a postcode or GPS coordinates. They can also share that address more quickly, more accurately and with less ambiguity than with any other system. For example, cave.arrive.rider is a square of beach in Los Angeles. This might be handy information for staking out the best spot for sunning, but it could also be information to direct emergency assets if someone had a heart attack. The beach doesn’t have an address - so the problem with emergency response is quite clear - and also the specific way that what3words can add precision to a rescue. HOW THIS FIXES THE PROBLEM WITH SCHOOL RE-UNIFICATION SITES. Dr. Perrodin’s consistent message for school safety is to cautiously approach preparing re-unification sites as part of a school safety plan. The problem with designating a church 2 blocks away as a re-unification site is that the fire department might declare a perimeter of 6 blocks around the school. In a moment, everything you’ve planned for in your evacuation is now out the window. Instead, at the start of every school year, Dr. Perrodin urges schools to inform parents that in the event of a student evacuation, the re-unification site will be determined as “part of working the problem.” what3words can provide a 3 word address for the impromptu re-unification location. This is a step forward from an address, example, as the W3W address can identify a specific entrance for parents. ADA DESIGNED. David also notes that the W3W system appears to be highly-compliant with ADA standards. It can interface with voice-input systems, wearables, and so on. This is very important for school as it helps ensure accessibility by students with special needs. FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests and do not reflect positions of The 405 Media or supporters of “The Safety Doc Podcast”. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. Email David: thesafetydoc@gmail.com LOOKING FOR DR. TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com Learn more about what3words at https://what3words.com/

Coined in 1990 by anarchist scholar Hakim Bey, the term temporary autonomous zone (T.A.Z.) seeks to preserve the creativity, energy and enthusiasm of autonomous uprisings without replicating the inevitable betrayal and violence that has been the reaction to most revolutions throughout history. The answer, according to Bey, lies in refusing to wait for a revolutionary moment, and instead create spaces of freedom in the immediate present whilst avoiding direct confrontation with the state. BURNING MAN. Once a year, tens of thousands of people gather in Nevada’s Black Rock Desert to create Black Rock City, a temporary metropolis dedicated to community, art, self-expression, and self-reliance. In this crucible of creativity, all are welcome. Burning Man is not a festival. Burning Man is a community. A temporary city. A global cultural movement that doesn’t book acts or provide entertainment. What happens here is up to you! There is no corporate sponsorship. You are entering a “decommodified” space that values who you are, not what you have. You are expected to collaborate, be inclusive, creative, connective and clean up after yourself. Participate actively as a citizen of Black Rock City (Temporary city) (NEVADA) approximately 100 north-northeast of Reno. SLAB CITY. Slab City, or The Slabs, is a free campsite and alternative living community located near an active bombing range in the desert city of Niland, California. Previously an old WWII base, Marine barracks Camp Dunlap, the campsite earns its name for the concrete slabs that remained long after the military base had been bulldozed and abandoned. The permanent residents, also known as “slabbers,” most often end up in Slab City due to poverty (many are said to subsist off government checks), though some also stay for the feeling of freedom that comes with living in an uncontrolled, off-grid area in the middle of the desert. With no electricity, fresh water, or sewage treatment, residents are forced to rely on solar panels and their own waste system. The residents share one communal shower, a concrete cistern that is fed by a hot spring 100 yards away. DAVID’S POSITION ON DECLARING TAZ’s DURING DISASTERS. Dr. Perrodin notes that pseudo-TAZ’s manifested when non-profit rescue organizations, such as Cajun Navy Relief, efficiently integrated into rapidly-scaling rescue forces following Hurricanes Irma & Harvey. Unfortunately, government emergency operations centers’ orders sidelined these same types of non-profits a year later from participating in the Hurricane Florence rescue. David argues that a national decree of “TAZ Immunity” should be issued during times of immense national distress. CHINA’S SOCIAL CREDIT SCORES. Dr. Perrodin closes this show with a primer discussion about China’s individual social credit scores that will be assigned to every citizen in 2020. “Low” scores can result in people being denied plane tickets or even having Internet speeds slowed. What might this practice look like if introduced in America? FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests and do not reflect positions of The 405 Media or supporters of “The Safety Doc Podcast”. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. Email David: thesafetydoc@gmail.com LOOKING FOR DR. TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com

On August 18, 1913, at the casino in Monte Carlo, black came up a record twenty-six times in succession in roulette. There was a near-panicky rush to bet on red, beginning about the time black had come up a phenomenal fifteen times. Although the probability that the probability was 47.4% the ball would land on red and 47.4% it would land on black, crazed betters pushed their "luck" and the house netted millions in francs that evening. THE GAMBLER’S FALLACY. The Gambler's Fallacy is based on a failure to understand statistical independence, that is, two events are statistically independent when the occurrence of one has no statistical effect upon the occurrence of the others. Statistical independence is connected to the notion of randomness in the following way: what makes a sequence random is that its members are statistically independent of each other. For instance, a list of random numbers is such that one cannot predict better than chance any member of the list based upon a knowledge of the other list members. This is why we can’t predict tonight’s lottery numbers by studying all of the numbers generated over the past year.  SCHOOL SAFETY BOWS TO THE GAMBLER’S FALLACY. There are two ways that school safety is strongly influenced by the Gambler’s Fallacy First, the public perceives that a passage of time without a school shooting or sentinel safety event is “unusual” of “uncomfortable” and therefore media surface about how society is “overdue” for a school shooting. These rumblings amplify and radiate and possibly become a self-fulfilling prophecy and bringing a school shooting to fruition. This might a stretch of a proclamation, but there’s merit to it. THE RECENCY EFFECT IS THE REASON WE DON’T ANTICIPATE THE FUTURE. The “Recency Effect” simply means that things will be similar to how they have played out in recent times. This was a notable flaw in the massive fortification of the basement and street level areas of the World Trade Center following the 1993 bombing. Nobody thought ahead and considered planes.  HOT HAND THEORY – IMPATIENT PEOPLE DON’T CARE ABOUT TRENDS. The corollary to the recency effect is the equally fallacious notion of the 'hot hand', derived from basketball, in which it is thought that the last scorer is most likely to score the next one as well. The academic name for this is 'positive recency' - that people tend to predict outcomes based on the most recent event. MAGINOT LINE – WE MAKE THE SAME MISTAKE TODAY. Of course planning for the next war based on the last one (another manifestation of positive recency) invariably delivers military catastrophe. This is why school fortification efforts are inadequately informed measures to address the attack of tomorrow. FOLLOW DR. PERRODIN: Twitter @SafetyPhD and subscribe to The Safety Doc YouTube channel & Apple Podcasts. SAFETY DOC WEBSITE & BLOG: www.safetyphd.com The Safety Doc Podcast is hosted & produced by David Perrodin, PhD. ENDORSEMENTS. Opinions are those of the host & guests and do not reflect positions of The 405 Media or supporters of “The Safety Doc Podcast”. The show adheres to nondiscrimination principles while seeking to bring forward productive discourse & debate on topics relevant to personal or institutional safety. Email David: thesafetydoc@gmail.com LOOKING FOR DR. TIMOTHY LUDWIG, PHD? Dr. Perrodin’s “Safety Doc Podcast” negotiates school and community safety. To be informed about industrial safety, please contact Appalachian State University Professor Dr. Timothy Ludwig, PhD, at www.safety-doc.com

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